Book Review: “Uncrowned Queen: The Fateful Life of Margaret Beaufort Tudor Matriarch” by Nicola Tallis

45992763._SY475_The stories of the women of the Wars of the Roses have become very popular in recent years. Tales of Jacquetta Woodville, Elizabeth Woodville, Margaret of Anjou, and Elizabeth of York tend to be favorites of those who read historical fiction. However, there was one woman whose life story is so much better than fiction. She was married 3 or 4 times (depending on if you count her first marriage), had only one beloved son who she helped rise to become King of England, and was considered one of the most powerful women of her time. In the modern era of historical dramas, Margaret Beaufort has been portrayed as malicious and cunning, someone who plotted against the Yorkist cause. With all of these conflicting reports about this one woman, can we ever find out the truth about her life? What kind of person was Margaret Beaufort? Nicola Tallis has taken up the challenge to answer these questions to find the truth about this remarkable woman in her latest biography, “Uncrowned Queen: The Fateful Life of Margaret Beaufort Tudor Matriarch”.

I have been a huge fan of Margaret Beaufort, ever since I first heard about her rather extraordinary life. When I heard that Nicola Tallis was writing a new biography about her, I knew for a fact that I wanted to read it. Like Tallis’ previous biography that I read, this was an absolute joy to read.

From the moment she was born, Margaret was a useful pawn for the marriage market. Her father, John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, was the grandson of John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford and was an extremely powerful man. When he died, perhaps by suicide after a failed military campaign, Margaret was his only heiress. She was put on the marriage market at a young age and was perhaps married when she was quite young, but the first marriage she ever acknowledged was to Edmund Tudor, the father of Henry Tudor when she was 12; she would give birth to Henry when she was only 13 and never had any more children due to the trauma that she endured at such a young age.

It was this bond between mother and son that would define Margaret’s life and her motivation to keep on going, even when her life hung in the balance. After Edmund died, she was separated from Henry for years, meaning that if she wanted to protect her son, she would have to marry men of power, like her third husband, Henry Stafford, and her fourth husband, Thomas Stanley. These men would prove to be husbands that Margaret could rely on to make sure that Henry was able to survive during the Wars of the Roses. Margaret got along relatively well with kings like Henry VI and Edward IV, but to say that her relationship with Richard III was disastrous would be an understatement. Tallis takes the time to explore this relationship and to debunk the myth that she had something to do with the Princes in the Tower and their disappearances.
When Henry Tudor defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field on August 22, 1485, the Tudor dynasty began and Margaret took up the new role as the King’s Mother. There were still triumphs and heartaches that Margaret had to endure, but we finally were able to see her piety and her desire to help out educational institutions during this last part of her life. By diving into the records, Tallis can reveal the truth about Margaret Beaufort’s life and her relationships with her ever-expanding family.

Tallis makes a triumphant return with this meticulously researched biography about the remarkable Margaret Beaufort. It is engaging and truly one of the best biographies about the matriarch of the Tudor dynasty. This is a must-read for anyone curious about the Wars of the Roses, the beginning of the Tudor dynasty, and this strong mother caught in the middle. I highly recommend “Uncrowned Queen: The Fateful Life of Margaret Beaufort Tudor Matriarch” by Nicola Tallis.

Book Review: “Following in the Footsteps of Henry Tudor: A Historical Journey From Pembroke to Bosworth” by Phil Carradice

43972620In the study of history, we tend to look at the beginning and the end of a battle and why they were fought. We rarely pay attention to the march that led to the battle, but when we do, there is a distinct reason why. One particular case is of Henry Tudor’s march to the Battle of Bosworth Field. It is a tale that started from his birth at Pembroke Castle to being an exile and then from an exile to being King of England. The story of how an exile became a king and founded the infamous Tudor dynasty deserves attention. Phil Carradice believed that it was time for the story of the first Tudor king and his march to destiny to be told in his latest book, “Following in the Footsteps of Henry Tudor: A Historical Journey From Pembroke to Bosworth”.

I would like to thank Pen and Sword Books for sending me a copy of this book. This is the second book in the “Following in the Footsteps” series that I have read, so I was cautiously optimistic. I wanted to learn more about Henry Tudor’s march to Bosworth and I certainly did in this book.

Carradice begins his book with a novel-like description of Henry, or “Harri”, and his uncle Jasper Tudor landing in Wales. As a reader, I was a bit confused about the direction that Carradice was taking by using this approach since this is a historical non-fiction book instead of historical fiction, but Carradice was able to tie it in nicely. He then explains, rather briefly, the conflict known as the Wars of the Roses and how England got to the point where it was Henry Tudor versus King Richard III for the throne. It is this information that is crucial for readers to understand Henry’s motive for claiming the throne and how it was an arduous task to achieve. It was in these early chapters that we see how Henry went from a regular boy to an exile who became a thorn in the side of the Yorkist Kings Edward IV and Richard III.

The bulk of Carradice’s book deals with what happens after Henry Tudor and his men land in Wales. He deals with issues of exactly where Henry landed and why the traditional place for the landing does not make a whole lot of sense. Carradice also takes on the legends that surrounded the different locations during the march and compared them to the facts that we do know about the march, primarily from Polydore Vergil. The one problem that I had with this book was that Carradice did not include a map of the march. I was not familiar with the locations, particularly the Welsh locations, so it was difficult to visualize the distances. What I did appreciate was the fact that as the battle approached, Carradice showed how both Henry and Richard III must have been feeling and how their decisions on that fateful day made all the difference.

Overall, I was pleasantly surprised by this book. It may be small, but it is rather mighty with all the information that it contains. Carradice’s writing style makes this book feel like a historical fiction novel with a plethora of information one expects from a historical nonfiction book. If you want a great introduction book to Henry Tudor’s march to Bosworth Field and the beginning of the Tudor dynasty, I highly recommend you read, “Following in the Footsteps of Henry Tudor: A Historical Journey From Pembroke to Bosworth” by Phil Carradice.

Book Review: “The House of Grey: Friends and Foes of Kings” by Melita Thomas

51fOOu0p2GL._SX332_BO1,204,203,200_There are many noble or royal families that truly were the backbone of the English society and that could help or hinder the monarchy. One such family was the Greys, who started as a baronial family and rose through the ranks by good marriages and staying loyal to those who were in power. Of course, when one rises high, there is also the risk of falling low spectacularly, which happens when Lady Jane Grey becomes Queen of England for a mere 9 days. The story of the house of Grey is complex, yet it has never been told in its entirety, until now. This extraordinary family saga is told in Melita Thomas’s latest book, “The House of Grey: Friends and Foes of Kings”. 

I would like to thank Amberley Publishing for sending me a copy of this book. Melita Thomas is the co-founder and editor of Tudor Times and this is her second book.  This particular book caught my eye as I did not know much about the Grey family, besides the story of Lady Jane Grey and her sisters. 

The story of the House of Grey begins with a rivalry between Owain Glyndwr and Lord Grey of Ruthyn over throwing off English dominance in Wales. Not a great start for a family who would become loyal to the crown of England. It was during the Wars of the Roses and the Battle of Northampton when Edmund Grey switched from supporting the Lancasters to supporting the Yorks, splitting the Grey family apart for a time. It was when Sir John Grey died at the Second Battle of St. Albans that the Greys truly supported the Yorkist crown since his widow, Lady Elizabeth Woodville, married King Edward IV. It is here that Thomas tracks the road to the crown through Elizabeth Woodville’s two Grey sons, Thomas and Richard.

Melita Thomas shows how the Grey boys made names for themselves; Richard Grey being executed while Richard of Gloucester was Lord Protector and Thomas Grey turning rebel and joining the Tudor cause to put Henry Tudor on the throne. Thomas Grey married Cecily Bonville and it was through their line that the Greys inherited the title of Marquis of Dorset. The title would pass onto each son until it reached Henry Grey, who’s ambitions for his daughter would prove fatal.

Thomas navigates the tumultuous times of the Greys to show how truly colorful the family was, from tiffs with fellow landowners to grand fallouts with kings and queens. The Grey family was able to restore themselves time after time to the monarchy’s good favor, no matter how low they fell. The Greys and their influence did not just reach England, but other corners of Europe as well, which is rather remarkable to read all about. Thomas gives the reader an opportunity to understand the roller coaster dynamics of the Grey family and the political atmosphere of the royal courts of different monarchs. The times that the Grey family lived in was one of great change and they were all along for the ride.

I found this book rather engaging and utterly fascinating. It is meticulously researched and you can tell that Melita Thomas had a passion for the subject she was writing about. Many people only know the story of Lady Jane Grey and her immediate family, but I think that this book paints a vivid picture of a complex family who survived the reigns of medieval and Tudor kings and queens. If you want to a delightful in-depth dive into the lives of the Greys, I highly recommend you read, “The House of Grey: Friends and Foes of Kings” by Melita Thomas.

 

“The House of Grey: Friends and Foes of Kings” by Melita Thomas will be available in the United States on January 1, 2020. If you would like to pre-order this awesome book, you can follow this link: https://www.amazon.com/House-Grey-Friends-Foes-Kings/dp/1445684977/

 

Book Review: “Wars of the Roses: Ravenspur- Rise of the Tudors” by Conn Iggulden

41+RQteGLUL._SX324_BO1,204,203,200_By the year 1470, England had been embroiled in a civil war between the houses of York and Lancaster for nearly 20 years. Edward IV was king until he was driven out of the country by his former best friend Warwick and Edward’s own brother, George Duke of Clarence. The House of Lancaster is back in charge with Henry VI, but Edward IV and his other brother Richard Duke of Gloucester are not giving up without a fight. However, there is another family who wants to fight for the throne, the Tudors. How will it come to an end? Who will become King of England when all the major battles come to an end? These questions are answered in Conn Iggulden’s thrilling conclusion to his Wars of the Roses series, “Ravenspur- Rise of the Tudors.”

We are thrown back into the story with Edward forced to leave England and his wife and children forced to go into sanctuary while the Lancasters, with Warwick and George Duke of Clarence taking over military control. We are also introduced to new characters. Jasper Tudor, his nephew Henry Tudor, and Edward’s other brother Richard Duke of Gloucester, who would one day become King Richard III. In his historical note, Conn Iggulden explains Richard, his twisted spine and the struggle he might have had on the battlefield:

For all those who have imbibed a romantic view of King Richard III, I think they have cause to be grateful to Shakespeare, for all the bard’s delight in making him a hunchbacked villain. Without Shakespeare, Richard Plantagenet was only king for two years and would have been just a minor footnote to his brother’s reign. There is not one contemporary mention of physical deformity, though we know now that his spine was twisted. He would have lived in constant pain, but then so did many active fighting men. There is certainly no record of Richard ever needing a special set of armour for a raised shoulder. Medieval swordsmen, like Roman soldiers before them, would have been noticeably larger on their right sides. A school friend of mine turned down a career as a professional fencer because of the way his right shoulder was developing into a hump from constant swordplay- and that was with a light, fencing blade. Compare his experience to that of a medieval swordsman using a broader blade, three feet long or even longer, where strength and stamina meant the difference between victory and a humiliating death. (Iggulden, 456-457).

Iggulden explores the relationship between the main characters; Edward IV, Warwick, Jasper Tudor, Richard III, George Duke of Clarence, and Henry Tudor, and how the events between 1470 and 1485 radically changed their lives forever. The betrayal of Warwick and George and how that affected Edward and Richard. How Edward and Richard leaving England for a time affected Elizabeth Woodville and her children. When Edward and Richard landed in Ravenspur and marched against Warwick and George at the Battle of Barnet. The final defeat of the Lancasterian cause at the Battle of Tewkesbury and what followed after the death of Edward IV in 1483. And of course, the Battle of Bosworth where Henry Tudor wins the crown and begins the Tudor dynasty.

“Ravenspur” is a well-written and thrilling conclusion to Iggulden’s “Wars of the Roses” series. He was able to combine exciting battle scenes with family drama, internal dialogue, and political intrigue to create a masterpiece of a series. The only problem I had with the book was that I did want more dialogue from Elizabeth Woodville, Elizabeth of York and Margaret Beaufort. They seemed to have been sprinkled in when it was convenient. Overall, I found “Ravenspur” engaging and enjoyable. If you have read the three previous books in Conn Iggulden’s series, I highly encourage you to read “Ravenspur- Rise of the Tudors” as it brings the Wars of the Roses to a dramatic end.

Guest Post by Tony Riches – Telling the Stories of the Tudors

tudor books

It began with my research for a novel about the life of Henry Tudor, who like me was born in the Welsh town of Pembroke. I decided to write it as an historical fiction novel in the hope of reaching a wider audience, including those who might never read a textbook about the Tudors. I also enjoy the challenge of ‘filling the gaps’ in the historical record and bringing these men and women to life.

I’d collected more than enough material for a book – and discovered that although Henry features (with varying degrees of accuracy) in many works of fiction, there were no novels devoted to telling his amazing story. I believe this was partly because Henry had been labelled as dull and miserly, when in fact he was an extravagant gambler, who spent a fortune on clothes, knew how to broker peace and brought an end to the Wars of the Roses.

I also discovered there were no novels about Henry’s Welsh grandfather, Owen Tudor, or Owen’s son, Jasper Tudor, who helped Henry become king. The Tudor trilogy provided the perfect ‘vehicle’ for Henry to be born in the first book, ‘come of age’ in the second and become King of England in the third.

I’m pleased to say the books of the Tudor trilogy became best sellers in the US, UK, and Australia, with the final book being the only historical fiction novel shortlisted for the Amazon Kindle Storyteller award. (Henry was a runner up but I won a Kindle Oasis and a bottle of good Champagne.)

The challenge I then faced was how to follow a successful trilogy. I’d enjoyed developing the character of Henry’s daughter, Mary Tudor, and realized the story of how she became Queen of France is little known. (In the TV series ‘The Tudors’ Mary was ‘merged’ with her sister Margaret – and some people understandably confuse her with her brother’s daughter, also Mary Tudor.)

I wrote Mary – Tudor Princess, which become my best-selling book last year, then followed up with my latest book, Brandon – Tudor Knight. Readers are probably familiar with Charles Brandon’s story of how he risked everything to marry Mary Tudor against the wishes of her vengeful brother, Henry VIII. What they might not know is how Brandon found himself seriously out of his depth fighting Henry’s wars in France, or that after Mary’s death he married his fourteen-year-old ward, wealthy heiress Lady Katherine Willoughby.

Now I have two ‘sequels’ to the Tudor Trilogy, with the five books forming a series providing a continuous narrative throughout the reign of the two King Henrys. Where to go next?  All the books are now available as audiobooks and are being translated into Spanish and Italian. I’ve also been recording podcasts about the stories of the Tudors each month, (see https://tonyriches.podbean.com/.)  

I’m now enjoying researching and writing the amazing story of what became of Katherine (Willoughby) Brandon after the death of Charles. Her story deserves to be told – and leads right up to the coronation of Queen Elizabeth I and my planned next series, which will explore the fascinating world of the Elizabethan Tudors.

 

Tony Riches
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About the Author

Tony Riches is a full-time UK author of best-selling historical fiction. He lives in image2Pembrokeshire, West Wales and is a specialist in the history of the Wars of the Roses and the lives of the early Tudors. For more information about Tony’s books please visit his website tonyriches.com and his popular blog, The Writing Desk and find him on  Facebook and Twitter @tonyriches

 

 

 

 

 

Brandon – Tudor Knightimage3

By Tony Riches

New on Amazon UK and Amazon US

 

From the author of the international bestselling Tudor Trilogy comes a true story of adventure, courtly love and chivalric loyalty. 

Handsome, charismatic and a champion jouster, Sir Charles Brandon is the epitome of a Tudor Knight. A favourite of King Henry VIII, Brandon has a secret. He has fallen in love with Henry’s sister, Mary Tudor, the beautiful widowed Queen of France, and risks everything to marry her without the King’s consent.

Brandon becomes Duke of Suffolk, but his loyalty is tested fighting Henry’s wars in France. Mary’s public support for Queen Catherine of Aragon brings Brandon into dangerous conflict with the ambitious Boleyn family and the king’s new right-hand man, Thomas Cromwell. 

Torn between duty to his family and loyalty to the king, Brandon faces an impossible decision: can he accept Anne Boleyn as his new queen? 

 

Biography: King Henry VII

mw03078(Born January 28, 1457- Died April 21, 1509). Son of Margaret Beaufort and Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond. Married to Elizabeth of York. Father of Arthur, Prince of Wales, Margaret, Queen of Scots, Henry VIII, King of England and Mary, Queen of France. Henry VII went from an exile to the founder of one of the most powerful dynasties in all of English history, the Tudor Dynasty.

Henry Tudor, later Henry VII, was born at Pembroke Castle to Margaret Beaufort and Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond on January 28, 1457. Henry never met his father Edmund because he died three months before Henry was born. His grandfather, Owen Tudor, was married to Katherine of Valois which made Henry’s father half brother of King Henry VI. Henry’s mother was the great granddaughter of John of Gaunt and his third wife Katherine Swynford. Henry’s mother Margaret Beaufort was only 13 when she gave birth to Henry and because his father died, his uncle Jasper Tudor took care of him.

Life was stable for Henry Tudor for a few years, until Edward IV won the crown in 1461, sending Henry’s uncle Jasper into exile and the title of Earl of Pembroke as well as Pembroke Castle and the wardship of Henry went to a Yorkist supporter William Herbert. Henry stayed with William Herbert until 1469, when the Earl of Warwick Richard Neville switched sides to the Lancastrians and had Herbert executed. Warwick restored Henry VI to the throne in 1470, Jasper came back from exile, and Henry was allowed to go to court.

This return of Henry VI would not last long as Edward IV was restored to the throne and Warwick was killed. Henry and Jasper tried to gather more support for the Lancastrian cause but they got caught in a bad storm in the English Channel while escaping from Tenby. They landed in Brittany where they sought the protection of Francis II, Duke of Brittany, which he did give to them. The Lancastrians along with Jasper and Henry, were housed at the Château de Suscinio in Sarzeau. Edward IV tried his best to apprehend Jasper and Henry but he failed to do so. Edward IV died on April 9, 1483, leaving his throne to his young son Edward V. After a few weeks, Edward V and his siblings were declared illegitimate and the throne was passed onto Edward V’s uncle Richard Duke of Gloucester, who became Richard III. Edward V and his brother Richard Duke of York were never seen again.

Henry’s mother Margaret Beaufort saw an opportunity for her son to become king. During this time Margaret was plotting with Elizabeth Woodville to arrange a marriage between Henry and Elizabeth Woodville eldest daughter, Elizabeth of York. Henry and Jasper tried to invade England in October 1483, but they were forced to go back to Brittany. It was in December 1483 that Henry made an oath in Rennes, France to marry Elizabeth of York when he became King of England. When the Duke of Brittany got very ill in 1484, his treasurer Pierre Landais made a deal with Richard III to give over Henry and Jasper Tudor in exchange for 3,000 English archers to defend a French attack. A bishop in Flanders John Morton heard about the deal and warned Henry and Jasper just before Landais could reach them. Henry and Jasper fled into France where King Charles VIII allowed them to stay until Duke Francis II felt better.
Henry and Jasper Tudor made their way back to England in August 1485, where they faced off against Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field on August 22, 1485. Richard III was defeated and Henry became Henry VII. Henry was crowned king on October 30, 1485 and he would marry Elizabeth of York the following year on January 18, 1486. The couple had their first child, Arthur, on September 20, 1486. Henry and Elizabeth would have 4 children who would survive into adulthood; Arthur Tudor, Margaret Tudor, Henry Tudor, and Mary Tudor. During 1487, a young man named Lambert Simnel, claimed that he was the earl of Warwick, Elizabeth’s cousin, so Henry VII had the real earl of Warwick taken from the Tower and paraded through London. It was at the last battle of the Wars of the Roses, the Battle of Stoke Field on June 16, 1487 that Lambert Simnel was defeated. Henry decided to let the boy live and gave him a job at the castle.

In 1490, a young man named Perkin Warbeck, appeared and claimed to be Richard Duke of York. Warbeck won the support of Edward IV’s sister Margaret of Burgundy and James IV of Scotland. In September 1497 Warbeck landed in Cornwall with a few thousand troops, but was soon captured. He was allowed to live in the court and his wife Lady Catherine Gordon was made one of the ladies in waiting for Elizabeth of York. Warbeck tried to escape and it landed him in the Tower of London, close to Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick, son of the late George, Duke of Clarence. Warbeck and Warwick plotted to escape the Tower, but the plan was uncovered and both men were charged with treason. Perkin Warbeck was hanged at Tyburn on November 23, 1499.

Henry VII was a cautious man and decided that it was better to make alliances through marriages than to launch into expensive wars, like his predecessors. Henry VII was one of the first European monarchs to recognise the importance of the newly united Spanish kingdom under Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon and concluded the Treaty of Medina del Campo, by which his son, Arthur Tudor, was married to Catherine of Aragon. He also concluded the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Scotland, which betrothed his daughter Margaret to King James IV of Scotland. Henry VII hoped to break the Auld Alliance between Scotland and France through the marriage of Margaret to the Scottish king, but it did not happen. Henry was also able to form alliances with Pope Innocent VIII and Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I.

On November 14, 1501, Arthur Tudor married Katherine of Aragon. The following year, tragedy hit hard as Arthur died on April 2, 1502. His son’s death hit Henry hard and it was his wife Elizabeth of York who consoled him and convinced him that he still had Henry, his youngest son, as his heir and that they were still young enough to have children. Henry VII wanted to maintain the Spanish alliance. He therefore arranged a papal dispensation from Pope Julius II for Prince Henry to marry his brother’s widow Katherine. Elizabeth would have one more child, a girl named Katherine, on February 2, 1503, but the baby would not live long. Elizabeth of York would die on her 37th birthday, on February 11, 1503. Henry would grieve over the loss of his wife and son the rest of his life. He retreated to Richmond Palace, which was the former Sheen Palace but it was badly damaged in a fire in 1497 and rebuilt. Henry’s health failed him and he would die on April 21, 1509 at Richmond Palace. His only son Henry Tudor succeeded his father and became Henry VIII.

Biography: Elizabeth Woodville

(Born around 1437- Died June 8, 1492). Daughter of Jacquetta of Luxembourg and ElizabethWoodvilleRichard Woodville. Married to Sir John Grey and King Edward IV of England. Mother of Thomas Grey, Marquess of Dorset, Richard Grey, Elizabeth, Queen of England, Mary of York, Cecily, Viscountess Welles, Edward V, King of England, Margaret of York, Richard, Duke of York, Anne, Lady Howard, George, Duke of Bedford, Catherine, Countess of Devon and Bridget of York. Elizabeth Woodville was the woman who Edward IV fell in love with and married, much to the chagrin of Warwick. Elizabeth was the mother of the Princes in the Tower and Elizabeth of York, the mother of the Tudor Dynasty.

Elizabeth Woodville was the eldest child of Richard Woodville and Jacquetta of Luxembourg, born around 1437 at Grafton Regis, Northamptonshire. Her parents marriage was controversial because they married for love and without King Henry VI’s permission. Jacquetta was previously married to the brother of King Henry V and, although the Woodvilles were wealthy landowners, they were still considered genteel rather than nobles. Jacquetta was considered the second lady at court, next to the Queen Margaret of Anjou and Elizabeth was able to become one of the maids of honor for Queen Margaret of Anjou. With her high position at court, Elizabeth was able to marry well with her first marriage. She married Sir John Grey of Groby in 1452 and during this time, Elizabeth became one of the four ladies of the bedchamber to Margaret of Anjou. In 1461, Sir John Grey would die at the Second Battle of St. Albans, fighting for the Lancastrian cause, leaving Elizabeth a widow with two infant sons, Thomas and Richard Woodville.

Elizabeth Woodville’s sons, Thomas and Richard, did not receive the Bradgate inheritance that they deserved. Elizabeth went into mourning for two years at her family home at Grafton Regis in Northamptonshire. After the Yorkist victory a few weeks later at Towton, Edward IV, the new king, stopped by at Grafton Regis for a couple of days, where it is said he fell in love with Elizabeth Woodville. It is said that he saw her under an oak tree, waiting for him to arrive and to plead her case to get her sons’ inheritance, but there is no evidence that this actually happened. The couple married in secret sometime in May 1464.

At this time, Richard Neville “The Kingmaker” Earl of Warwick, was working on a marriage alliance with France. When Warwick and the Council found out about the marriage, they were rightfully upset. Not only did the King marry a woman who was a widow and not a princess, but now her relations were able to capitalize in the marriage market. Three of Elizabeth’s sister married sons of earls and her brother John, who was in his 20s at the time married Katherine Duchess of Norfolk, who was widowed three times and was in her 60s, causing quite a scandal. On May 16, 1465, Elizabeth was crowned queen consort and the following year, she gave birth to the couple’s first child, Elizabeth of York. Elizabeth of York’s godparents were her grandmother Jacquetta of Luxembourg and Warwick.

In 1469, Warwick decided to rebel against Edward IV and join the Lancastrian cause to put Henry VI back on the throne. After the Battle of Edgecote Moor, Elizabeth’s father Richard and her brother John were arrested and executed on August 12 at Kenilworth. Elizabeth’s mother Jacquetta was arrested by Warwick on the charges of witchcraft. These charges were dropped in February 1470.

In September 1470, Warwick invaded England and placed Henry VI back on the throne, forcing Edward IV to flee and Elizabeth and her children sought sanctuary at Westminster Abbey. During this time, Elizabeth gave birth to her first son, the future Edward V. In total, Elizabeth and Edward would have 10 children, including Richard Duke of York. Edward IV returned and defeated Warwick at the Battle of Barnet in April 1471. When Margaret of Anjou returned, she formed an army to march against Edward IV, which forced Elizabeth to seek shelter at the Tower of London. After the Battle of Tewkesbury, Elizabeth exited the Tower and Margaret of Anjou and Henry VI entered it; Henry VI would later die in the Tower. Elizabeth’s mother Jacquetta would die on May 30, 1472.

Life returned to a normal pace for Elizabeth Woodville and her family. In January 1477, she watched as her young son Richard Duke of York was married to Anne Mowbray; both the bride and groom were not over the age of 5 when the wedding happened. Another marriage, arranged between Elizabeth’s daughter Elizabeth of York and the Dauphin of France, fell through. Shortly afterward, Elizabeth’s world changed forever when her husband Edward IV died April 9, 1483 and Elizabeth was made queen dowager.

Elizabeth’s son was named Edward V and his uncle Richard Duke of Gloucester was named Lord Protector. On April 29, as previously agreed, Richard and his cousin, the Duke of Buckingham, met Queen Elizabeth’s brother, Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers, at Northampton. At the queen’s request, Earl Rivers was escorting the young king to London with an armed escort of 2000 men, while Richard and Buckingham’s joint escort was 600 men. The young king himself had been sent to Stony Stratford. Richard had Earl Rivers, his nephew Richard Grey and his associate, Thomas Vaughan, arrested. They were taken to Pontefract Castle, where they were executed on June 25 on the charge of treason against the Lord Protector after appearing before a tribunal led by Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland. Richard took the young king under his protection, escorted him to London, and placed him in the Tower for his protection. After hearing about what had happened, Elizabeth Woodville took her children, including her daughters and her youngest son Richard Duke of York, and fled to sanctuary in Westminster Abbey.

Gloucester wanted Elizabeth to hand over her son Richard Duke of York. Elizabeth was very reluctant to hand over her son to his uncle, but eventually she did. Richard was said to have been informed with information that Edward V was illegitimate because Edward IV had entered into a previous marriage contract. On June 25, Parliament agreed that Edward V was illegitimate and the following day, June 26, Richard was proclaimed king. His joint coronation with his wife Anne Neville would occur on July 6, 1483, and his title was confirmed in an act of Parliament called the Titulus Regius, which was passed in January 1484.

We do not know what happened to the Princes in the Tower, Edward V and Richard Duke of York. They disappeared from sight after the summer of 1483, which has led many to speculate that Richard III had them murdered. At this point we cannot confirm or deny this theory. We don’t even know if they were murdered at all. It still remains one of the biggest unsolved mysteries in history.

Elizabeth Woodville was now known as Elizabeth Grey and she decided to side with the Duke of Buckingham and Margaret Beaufort to put Margaret’s son Henry Tudor on the throne. Henry Tudor was the closest male Lancastrian heir and in order to cement this new alliance, Elizabeth and Margaret arranged that Henry would marry Elizabeth of York. Buckingham’s rebellion against Richard would fail and he would be killed on November 2, 1483. In December 1483, Henry made an oath at a cathedral in Rennes, France to marry Elizabeth of York. At Richard III’s first Parliament in January 1484, he stripped Elizabeth Woodville of all of her lands that were granted to her during the reign of Edward IV. On March 1, 1484, Elizabeth and her daughters left sanctuary after Richard III promised not to harm them and to arrange marriages for all of Elizabeth Woodville’s daughters. There were rumors that after Anne Neville in March 1485, Richard III’s wife, died that he was seeking to marry Elizabeth of York, but there is no evidence to support this claim.

Later in August 1485, Henry Tudor invaded England and was able to defeat Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth on August 22, Henry became King Henry VII of England. Henry would marry Elizabeth of York, revoke the Titulus Regius and restore Elizabeth Woodville’s title and honors of queen dowager. The last five years of Elizabeth Woodville’s life she spent at Bermondsey Abbey. She was present for the birth of her grandchildren including Margaret Tudor and Henry Tudor, the future Henry VIII. Elizabeth of York and her sister Cecily Woodville would often visit their mother. Elizabeth Woodville died at the Abbey on June 8, 1492 and she was buried with her husband King Edward IV in St George’s Chapel in Windsor Castle.

Book Review: “The Tudor Rose” by Margaret Campbell Barnes

6536233The beginning of the Tudor Dynasty was full of action and drama. Richard III and Henry Tudor met on the battlefield at Bosworth on August 22, 1485 to determine who would be the King of England. Richard III fell and Henry Tudor triumph, becoming Henry VII. However, there was another person whose fate was determined on that battlefield; Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. It was at this battle that Elizabeth knew that she would marry Henry Tudor and become queen of England. But what was it like for her to live through this time of change? From the death of her father to the case of her missing brothers. From to Richard III’s short reign to her relationship with her husband Henry VII and her children. How did she feel during the most difficult times in her life? Margaret Campbell Barnes explores this question in her novel, “The Tudor Rose”.

“The Tudor Rose” starts off in the middle of Elizabeth of York’s childhood when the French decided to back away from the marriage arrangement between her and the Dauphin. Elizabeth, clearly distress, goes to his loving father Edward IV for comfort. When Edward IV died, we see how Elizabeth and her family reacted. It is Barnes theory that the family was quite close, especially Elizabeth and her younger brother Richard. Elizabeth’s brother is made Edward V and both boys are placed in the Tower of London for their protection by their uncle Richard Duke of Gloucester. Barnes writes Richard as a villain, similar to the way Shakespeare described him, and it feels as though Elizabeth is disgusted by him. Its Elizabeth’s mother Elizabeth Woodville who decides to get back at Richard by arranging a marriage between Elizabeth and the son of Margaret Beaufort, the future Henry VII.

After Bosworth, Henry is made king and marries Elizabeth of York. Even though Elizabeth was from the York and Henry was a Lancastrian supporter, history books tell us that they loved each other. Barnes takes a different approach to their relationship. She writes Henry as a miserly king who never had real feelings towards Elizabeth. Elizabeth, according to Barnes, had more love towards her children than she did towards husband. It’s a darker look at Henry VII, but one that is not uncommon in literature.

A common theme during Henry VII’s reign was the constant threat of people who pretended to be Elizabeth of York’s brothers. Elizabeth is not known to have met with any of the pretenders, but in this book, Elizabeth met with both Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck. The interactions are quite unique and makes the reader wonder if Warbeck especially could have been one of Elizabeth’s long lost brothers. Barnes explains the importance of these pretenders to both Henry and Elizabeth:

It was like a cloud above the Tudors’ lives. At first it had been just something which they joked about. But gradually, as the years went on and more and yet more people believed -or, for their own ends, pretended to believe- that a son of Edward’s still lived, it began to darken their world- and perhaps even to cloud their own certainty. Because it affected them both it brought Henry and Elizabeth closer together. But it affected them differently. To Henry, with his poor claim to the throne, the whole affair stood for affront and fear; whereas to Elizabeth- although it brought fear for her family- it never really ceased to hold a shining element of hope. A hope which she wore herself out trying to extinguish, knowing it for the crazy thing it was. (Barnes, 236).

I had read this book before I really started researching the Wars of the Roses and I really enjoyed the interactions between Elizabeth and her family. This was probably the first book that I read about Elizabeth of York that I really enjoyed and it was the book that got me interested in researching her life. Its been a few years since I have read this book and now that I have done a little research on Elizabeth of York’s life, I found myself questioning how certain characters were portrayed. If you want a book to help you get into the Wars of the Roses and the life of Elizabeth of York, I would recommend “The Tudor Rose” by Margaret Campbell Barnes. It gives a different perspective on the life of Elizabeth of York, the first Tudor queen.

Biography: Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby

Quartered_arms_of_Sir_Thomas_Stanley,_1st_Earl_of_Derby,_KG(Born 1435- Died July 29, 1504). Son of Thomas Stanley, 1st Baron Stanley and Joan Goushill. Married to Lady Eleanor Neville and Lady Margaret Beaufort. Father of George Stanley, 9th Baron Strange, Sir Edward Stanley, James Stanley, Bishop of Ely.  Thomas Stanley was a wealthy landowner who was able to find favor with successive kings during the Wars of the Roses, until his death in 1504.

Thomas Stanley was born around 1435 and he was the eldest son of Thomas Stanley, 1st Baron Stanley and his wife Joan Goushill. The Stanleys supported Henry Bolingbroke and the Lancastrian cause until the reign of Henry VI. Stanley was a squire for King Henry VI in 1454, but then the king fell mentally ill. In 1455, the Wars of the Roses broke out between the Duke of York and the Duke of Somerset. Somerset was killed at the first battle of St. Albans, which should have ended the conflict, but it only embroiled it. In the late 1450’s, Stanley decided to marry Eleanor Neville, the sister of Richard Neville Earl of Warwick, aligning himself with the Yorkist cause. In 1459, after a lull in the fighting, Margaret of Anjou marched against the Yorkist army, which included Warwick, Stanley’s brother in law. At the Battle of Blore Heath in August 1459, Margaret of Anjou ordered Stanley to raise an army to stop Warwick, but Stanley refused to fight; Stanley’s brother William was firmly on the Yorkist side and he was attainted.

In 1460, Stanley saw that the Yorkist cause was coming into power and so he decided to side with York and his cause. Stanley fought alongside his brother in law Warwick against the Lancastrian army. Edward placed Stanley in charge of maintaining the peace in north-west England, which he did. After the death of his father in 1459, Stanley inherited his father’s titles, including those of Baron Stanley and “King of Mann” as well as his extensive lands and offices in Cheshire and Lancashire. Stanley was the last person to call himself “King of Mann” as his successors would style themselves as “Lord of Mann”.

When Warwick decided to revolt against the king between 1469 and 1471, Stanley was torn on who to support, his king or his brother in law. In 1470, when Warwick fled to France to join the Lancastrian cause, Stanley made his choice and decided to go to Manchester to seek aid and support. When Warwick made his way back to England, Stanley joined forces with him to restore Henry VI to the throne. Edward came back in 1471 and Warwick was killed. Stanley was forgiven for his disloyalty and right after Edward was restored to the throne, Stanley was appointed steward of the king’s household and thereafter became a regular member of the royal council. Stanley’s wife Eleanor Neville died around this time, cutting his ties with the Warwicks and the Nevilles.

Stanley was looking for another wife and in 1472, he married Lady Margaret Beaufort, dowager Countess of Richmond and the mother of Henry Tudor. In 1475, Stanley led an expedition to France and in 1482, he helped Richard Duke of Gloucester in Scotland, playing a large role in capturing Berwick upon Tweed.

On April 9, 1483, Edward IV died, leaving his son Edward V king, Stanley was among those who sought to maintain a balance of power between the young king’s uncle, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who was now Lord Protector, and his maternal family, the Woodvilles. When the Duke of Gloucester attacked this group at a council meeting in June 1483, Stanley was wounded and imprisoned but was not executed like Hastings. That month, Parliament declared Edward V and his younger brother Richard, Duke of York illegitimate on the grounds that their father Edward IV’s marriage to Elizabeth Woodville was invalid , by way of a prior pre-contract of marriage with Eleanor Butler. The Duke of Gloucester was therefore declared king Richard III and it was confirmed through the act of Parliament called Titulus Regius.

Richard III decided not to isolate Stanley so he let Stanley to keep his position at court and allowed Margaret Beaufort to carry Queen Anne’s train at her coronation. Shortly afterward, Margaret’s properties and titles were given to Stanley and she was placed under house arrest instead of being executed for treason for aiding her son to overthrow Richard III. After the failed Buckingham rebellion in 1483, Stanley was given more forfeited properties and he was made Lord High Constable of England. Margaret was one of the conspirators in this plot and the one who arranged the marriage between her son Henry Tudor and Elizabeth of York. Stanley, in 1485, asked to leave court to go to his estates in Lancashire. Richard III , being very suspicious, agreed that he could if Stanley would allow his son George Stanley Lord Strange to stay at court. In reality, Lord Strange was a hostage.

The Stanleys were in constant communication with Henry Tudor and they were helping him with his landing in Wales and his invasion into England. Richard, hearing about this plan, ordered Stanley to raise an army and join him without delay. Stanley decided to fake an illness. Richard knew that Stanley had switched sides and the morning of the Battle of Bosworth Field, Richard said that he would kill Lord Strange if Stanley didn’t side with him. Stanley and his brother William decided to sit on the sidelines. Stanley did not fight, but it was his brother William who decided to intervene on Henry Tudor’s behalf, which helped Henry win the crown. Even though Stanley did not participate in the fighting, it is said that he is the one who placed the crown on Henry’s head after the battle was won. Henry VII was grateful to Thomas Stanley and made him the 1st Earl of Derby. William Stanley would foolishly side with Perkin Warbeck and would be executed for treason in 1495.

Stanley died at Lathom, Lancashire on July 29, 1504, and was buried in the family chapel in Burscough Priory, near Ormskirk in Lancashire. His son Lord Strange would die shortly afterward so the earldom of Derby was passed onto Stanley’s grandson Thomas Stanley, 2nd Earl of Derby.

Biography: King Richard III

mw05304(Born October 2, 1452- Died August 22, 1485). Son of Richard 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville. Married to Anne Neville. Father of Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales.
Richard III is one of the most controversial kings in English history. His death at the Battle of Bosworth Field led to the beginning of the Tudor Dynasty.

Richard III was born to Richard 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville on October 2, 1452 at Fotheringhay Castle in Northamptonshire. Many believed that it was a difficult birth. What we do know from historical records is that he might have been breeched born, which means that he was born upside down, which might have led to his physical deformities. From what we do know from examining his skeleton is that he had scoliosis, a sideways curvature of the spine.

Richard’s father was one of the most important men in all of England. He was a loyal follower to King Henry VI and when Henry VI had his bouts of mental illness, it was Richard Duke of York who would become the Lord Protector. York’s enemy was Edmund Beaufort Duke of Somerset, who was an ally of Margaret of Anjou; York had Somerset arrested during his protectorate but when the king recovered, Somerset was released and all of York’s reforms were reversed. York decided to face off against Somerset at the First Battle of St. Albans in 1455, where Somerset was killed. This was the first major battle in The Wars of the Roses. Margaret of Anjou never trusted York, especially when the king decided to name York and his sons the next heir to the throne, dismissing his son Edward of Westminster. Margaret of Anjou formed the Lancastrian army to face off against York and his ally Richard Neville Earl of Warwick.

It would be on December 30, 1460 when Richard’s life would radically change. This was the day when his father and eldest brother Edmund Earl of Rutland both died at the Battle of Wakefield. As the next Duke of York, Richard’s brother Edward was left the task of avenging their father’s death, with the help of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick. Edward did so at the Battle of Towton on March 29, 1461. This battle would ultimately lead to Edward being crowned king on June 28, 1461. Around the same time, Richard was declared Duke of Gloucester and made a Knight of the Garter and Knight of the Bath.

With this new title and his brother being King of England, Richard’s home life changed greatly. He moved to the castle of Middleham, home of Richard Neville Earl of Warwick, where he continued his education for at least four years. This was where he became friends with Francis Lovell and Robert Percy, two of his closest allied; he would also meet his future wife, Anne Neville, the daughter of the Earl of Warwick, here. Richard would leave Warwick’s household in 1468.
Warwick and Richard’s brother Edward IV were close since Warwick helped Edward become king. That was until Warwick found out that Edward had married Elizabeth Woodville instead of marrying the French princess that Warwick had in mind in order to create an English- French alliance. This was seen as an act of betrayal by not only Warwick, but the other lords of the court since it meant that Elizabeth’s family members would have a chance to marry well, thus allowing her family to move up in society. Around this time, Warwick was trying to arrange marriages for his daughters Anne and Isabel to George Duke of Clarence and Richard Duke of Gloucester, the brothers of the king. Edward did not approve of this idea at all.

Warwick decided to marry his daughter Isabel to George Duke of Clarence in July 1469, and Warwick tried to put George on the throne instead of Edward, which angered Edward IV and Parliament. Warwick took his family and his son-in-law George to France where Warwick reconciled with Margaret of Anjou. In order to cement their new alliance in order to get Henry VI back on the throne, Warwick had Anne marry Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, on December 13, 1470, making Anne Neville Princess of Wales. Their marriage would not last long.

During this time, Richard stayed loyal to his brother Edward and when Warwick came back in October 1470, Richard and Edward fled to Burgundy. They came back in March 1471. On April 14, 1471 at the Battle of Barnet, Warwick was killed. A few weeks later, on May 4, 1471 at the battle of Tewkesbury, Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, was killed and Henry VI was placed in the Tower. On May 21, 1471, King Henry VI was murdered. It is unknown who killed him, but many suspect that it was under the orders of King Edward IV. Some believe that Richard may have had a hand in this murder, but there is no evidence to either support or deny this claim.

Anne Neville was now a very powerful widow and there were again talks about her marrying Richard Duke of Gloucester. This made George Duke of Clarence nervous since he didn’t want to share the Warwick inheritance with his brother. George treated Anne like she was his ward and opposed her getting married. The story goes that George made Anne dress as a maid and hid her in a London shop, but Richard found her and escorted her to sanctuary at the Church of St Martin’s le Grand. George and Richard would feud about the lands that belonged to Anne and Isabel’s mother Anne Beauchamp. Edward resolved the matter by splitting the inheritance between the two sisters. This paved the way for Anne and Richard to be married, probably in the spring of 1472.

George would cause more trouble for Edward. Isabel died on December 22, 1476. Though it is believed that Isabel died of either consumption or childbed fever , George was convinced she had been poisoned by one of her ladies-in-waiting, Ankarette Twynyho, whom, as a consequence, he had judicially murdered in April 1477 right after her trial. The same year, George was eligible for Mary Duchess of Burgundy’s hand, but when Edward refused the marriage suit, George left court.

Edward was convinced that George was aiming at his throne after three of George’s men were tried for treason and were executed. George was thrown into prison, and in January 1478 the king unfolded the charges against his brother to the parliament. He had slandered the king; had received oaths of allegiance to himself and his heirs and had prepared for a new rebellion. Both Houses of Parliament passed the bill of attainder, and the sentence of death was announced. It is said that Edward gave his brother a choice on how he would die and George said that he would like to be drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine. What we do know is that George Duke of Clarence was executed in private in February 1478.

After George’s execution, Richard left court to take care of things in northern England. He conducted a few campaigns against James III of Scotland in 1482, which resulted in England regaining possession of Berwick, as well as the English advancing into Edinburgh. Richard was seen by his peers as a wise and strong general who ruled northern England and was granted palatine powers in the west in March 1483. Two months later, Richard’s world would change forever.

On April 9, 1483 Edward IV died and his son Edward V became king, Richard was named Lord Protector. On April 29, as previously agreed, Richard and his cousin, the Duke of Buckingham, met Queen Elizabeth’s brother, Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers, at Northampton. At the queen’s request, Earl Rivers was escorting the young king to London with an armed escort of 2000 men, while Richard and Buckingham’s joint escort was 600 men. The young king himself had been sent to Stony Stratford. Richard had Earl Rivers, his nephew Richard Grey and his associate, Thomas Vaughan, arrested. They were taken to Pontefract Castle, where they were executed on June 25 on the charge of treason against the Lord Protector after appearing before a tribunal led by Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland. Richard took the young king under his protection, escorted him to London, and placed him in the Tower for his protection. After hearing about what had happened, the dowager queen Elizabeth Woodville took her children, including her daughters and her youngest son Richard Duke of York, and fled to sanctuary in Westminster Abbey.

At a council meeting on June 13 at the Tower of London, Richard accused William Hastings and others of having conspired against him with the Woodvilles. Hastings, once a loyal supporter of Richard and a staunch opponent of the Woodvilles, was executed without trial. On June 16, the dowager queen agreed to hand over the Duke of York to the Archbishop of Canterbury so that he might attend his brother Edward’s coronation. Richard was said to have been informed with information that Edward V was illegitimate because Edward IV had entered into a previous marriage contract. On June 22nd, the day which was supposed to be Edward V’s coronation, Dr. Ralph Shaa gave a sermon at Old St. Paul’s Cathedral declaring that Edward IV’s children, the young king, his brother and sisters, were illegitimate. On June 25, Parliament agreed that Edward V was illegitimate and the following day, June 26, Richard was proclaimed king. His joint coronation with his wife Anne Neville would occur on July 6, 1483, and his title was confirmed in an act of Parliament called the Titulus Regius, which was passed in January 1484.

We do not know what happened to the Princes in the Tower, Edward V and Richard Duke of York. They disappeared from sight after the summer of 1483, which has led many to speculate that Richard III had them murdered. At this point we cannot confirm or deny this theory. We don’t even know if they were murdered at all. It still remains one of the biggest unsolved mysteries in history.

Although secure on the throne, Richard had to deal with some rebellions. The main rebellion came from his once loyal supporter Henry Stafford, duke of Buckingham. Buckingham decided to support the Woodvilles, Henry Tudor and his mother Margaret Beaufort to have Henry Tudor replace Richard III as king of England.

A widespread plot was soon formed, but Richard had early warning, and on October 15, 1483, he issued a proclamation against Buckingham. Buckingham, as arranged, prepared to enter England with a large force of Welshmen. Buckingham’s troops were stopped by a massive flood on the Severn and he himself took refuge with a follower, Ralph Bannister, at Lacon Hall. Bannister betrayed him for a large reward, and on the November 1, 1483, Buckingham was brought to the king at Salisbury. Buckingham never saw Richard III and right after his trial on November 2, 1483, a Sunday, he was beheaded in the courtyard between the Blue Boar Inn and the Sarcen’s Head Inn near the marketplace at Salisbury.

Richard was actual a very good ruler. He treated his subjects fairly and was highly regarded as a monarch by the English and his European counterparts. He was a pious man and was a staunch supporter of the church. In April 1484, Richard’s only legitimate son, Edward of Middleham, died, leaving Richard and Anne devastated. On March 16, 1485, Anne Neville died of possibly tuberculosis. There were rumors that Richard was trying to marry his niece Elizabeth of York and he had poisoned Anne to do so, but there is no evidence to prove these rumors.

Henry Tudor was able to make it to England in August 1485. Richard faced off against Henry Tudor at the Battle of Bosworth Field, on August 22, 1485. Richard’s army outnumbered Henry’s by quite a bit. Richard divided his army, which outnumbered Henry’s, into three groups. One was assigned to the Duke of Norfolk and another to the Earl of Northumberland. Henry kept most of his force together and placed it under the command of the experienced Earl of Oxford. Richard’s vanguard, commanded by Norfolk, attacked but struggled against Oxford’s men, and some of Norfolk’s troops fled the field. Northumberland took no action when signaled to assist his king, so Richard gambled everything on a charge across the battlefield to kill Henry and end the fight. Seeing the King’s knights separated from his army, the Stanleys intervened; Sir William Stanley led his men to Henry’s aid, surrounding and killing Richard. Richard’s body was stripped naked and it was carried on a pack horse to the Greyfriars Church in Leicester. His remains were found in 2012 under a parking lot in Leicester and he was reburied at Leicester Cathedral on March 26, 2015.