Book Review: “Henry VII and the Tudor Pretenders: Simnel, Warbeck, and Warwick” by Nathen Amin

50419850August 22, 1485, marked the end of the Plantagenet Dynasty with the death of King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. The man who succeeded him as King of England after his death was young Henry Tudor, whose dynasty would live in infamy in English history, thought that he was done fighting on the battlefield for his right to rule. This was only the beginning of a decades-long war against those who claimed to be lingering shadows of the past. They claimed to be the Princes in the Tower, whose disappearances in 1483 left to doubt and confusion on what happened to them and gave those who despised this new dynasty opportunity to exploit a young king’s fear of being overthrown. The young men who made this king who won his way to the throne on a battlefield quake in his boots are known today as “the Pretenders”, but who were they? In Nathen Amin’s much-anticipated book, “Henry VII and the Tudor Pretenders: Simnel, Warbeck, and Warwick”, he traces the origins of each pretender to show what type of threat that they posed to the first Tudor king.

I would like to thank Amberley Publishing for sending me a copy of this book. When Nathen Amin announced that he was writing this particular book, I was instantly interested in reading it. I thoroughly enjoyed his “ The House of Beaufort”, so I wanted to see how he would approach the enigmas of the pretenders. I was not disappointed as this was a historically riveting masterpiece.

To understand why the pretenders were able to gain supporters, Amin takes his readers to the Tower where the two sons of King Edward IV disappeared under mysterious circumstances. Since neither King Richard III nor King Henry VII could answer if the princes were either alive or dead, we have been left with Schrodinger’s cat-like situation. This proved to be a mistake on Henry VII’s part as it allowed young men with relatively obscure origins to take advantage and try to overthrow the king and his family. Two of the most famous pretenders were Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck, who had help near and far to try to end the Tudor dynasty before it really began. However, there were others including the tragic tale of Edward, Earl of Warwick, whose only crime was to be born of Yorkist royal blood.

There have been other books that have touched on the topic of the pretenders, but what Amin has done in this particular book is nothing short of remarkable. By acting as a historian/detective, Amin dived deep into the archives to follow the path that these men took from obscurity to prominent threats to the crown. Along the way, Amin kept Henry VII and his actions central to the narrative to show a different side to the first Tudor king that many might not have anticipated.

To write such a definitive and thought-provoking nonfiction book on such shadowy figures like the pretenders is no easy feat. Amin created an outstanding narrative that balances scrupulous attention to details with a coherent and engaging writing style to bring the complex story of Henry VII and the pretenders to life for the modern age. If you love learning about new aspects of the Tudor dynasty, “Henry VII and the Tudor Pretenders: Simnel, Warbeck, and Warwick” by Nathen Amin is the book for you. This is easily my favorite book Nathen Amin has written thus far.

Book Review: “Queens of the Crusades: England’s Medieval Queens Book Two” by Alison Weir

52355570 (1)One of the most prominent royal families of English history was the Plantagenets, who reigned for over three hundred years. In the first one hundred years of this family’s infamous history, five kings ruled (the first two are considered kings of the Angevin dynasty): Henry II, Richard I, John, Henry III, and Edward I. These five kings saw England change drastically, but they also participated in the international political landscape of the day, which involved the series of wars that today we simply refer to as the Crusades. The early Plantagenet kings saw much bloodshed and war, but they were not alone in their struggle to keep the dynasty going. These men would not have gotten as far as they did without their wives who stood by their sides. In Alison Weir’s latest installment of England’s Medieval Queens series, “Queens of the Crusades”, she takes a deep dive into the lives of the first five Plantagenet queens to show how remarkable these women truly were to stand beside their husbands during the times of the Crusades in Europe.

I would like to thank Ballantine Books, Random House, and Net Galley for sending me a copy of this book. I have been a massive fan of Alison Weir’s nonfiction books for years now. To have an opportunity to read this title and review it is simply astounding. As soon as Weir announced this new installment of England’s Medieval Queens series, I knew I wanted to read it because I had enjoyed Queens of the Conquest immensely.

The five queens that Weir covers in this particular book are Eleanor of Aquitaine, Berengaria of Navarre, Isabella of Angouleme, Alienor of Provence, and Eleanor of Castile. Many are familiar with the story of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Henry II and how it soured as their sons fought against their father, but it is worth noting that every queen in this book led a rather remarkable life. Eleanor of Aquitaine may have been alive during the time of Thomas Becket’s murder and Isabella of Angouleme witnessed her husband King John seal the Magna Carta, but some of these queens witnessed battles of the Crusades being fought as they traveled with their husbands to distant lands. There was also the matter of ruling two kingdoms, England and parts of France plus keeping the peace with Wales and Scotland, all while raising their children. There was never a dull moment for the lives of the early Plantagenet queens.

I found each queen in this book fascinating to read about, even though I did not know much about their lives. I obviously knew about Eleanor of Aquitaine, but the other queens have been briefly mentioned in other books that it felt like I was discovering their stories for the first time. The way they governed England and the way that they showed their love for their husbands and their children were different, but they each made a significant impact on the story of the Plantagenet dynasty. If I did have a problem with this book it would be that I found myself confused on which Eleanor was which, especially when Alienor of Provence and Eleanor of Castile were alive during the same time.

Overall, I found this book extremely informative and meticulously researched. Alison Weir has yet again made the lives of these queens that time seemed to have forgotten come to life. I believe that this is an excellent introductory book for anyone who wants to learn about the early queens of the Plantagenet dynasty. It is engaging, thought-provoking, and masterfully written. If this sounds like you, check out the second book in the England’s Medieval Queens series by Alison Weir, “Queens of the Crusades”.

Book Review: “The Rise and Fall of a Medieval Family: The Despensers” by Kathryn Warner

55182670._SY475_In the times of medieval kings, the power of the crown was dependent on the support that they maintained with noble families. One of the most notorious noble families in England was the baronial family known as the Despensers. Between the 13th and the 15th centuries, the Despensers were at the heart of royal politics and some of the biggest power plays during the reign of the Plantagenets. We know about the few members who truly made waves during this time, especially Hugh Despenser the Elder and Hugh Despenser the Younger, but this family’s story is much more than a few members. In Kathryn Warner’s latest book, “The Rise and Fall of a Medieval Family: The Despensers”, she takes on the challenge of explaining the entire family story of this infamous baron clan.

I would like to thank Pen and Sword Books and Net Galley for sending me a copy of this book. I have enjoyed Kathryn Warner’s writing style in the past and when I heard about this book, I was intrigued. I will be honest and say that I only knew about Hugh the Elder and Hugh the Younger when they were mentioned in other history books that I had read in the past. I was excited to learn more about this family.

To understand this book, it should be noted that this is unlike any other modern medieval history book. It is a bit different than what Kathryn Warner has written in the past. In truth, this book feels like a modern-day chronicle of the Despenser family. Warner begins with the reign of King Henry III in 1265 with the execution of the Despenser’s patriarch, Hugh the justiciar, and concludes with Isabella Despenser, who was the grandmother of Anne Neville, the wife of King Richard III. Warner includes the more scandalous tales of love and betrayal that encapsulate the fascination that historians have had with this family for centuries.

What was compelling to me about this book is the stories of those who were in the background of the more sensationalized figures. The tales of triumph and sorrow that the family had to endure are remarkable. For the family to survive, they needed to make waves in the medieval marriage market, which they did spectacularly. It is these marriages and their impacts that Warner focuses heavily on to show that even in disgrace, the Despensers continued to rise from the ashes.

If I did have a problem with this book, there were points where it was a tad dry to read. This book is very academic and is directed towards those who know the history of the Despensers. Warner takes her readers on a deeper dive into this infamous family. You can tell from Warner’s dedication to this task that she truly enjoyed studying about the Despensers. As someone who was not familiar with this family and its numerous family members named “Hugh”, I found myself going back to try and figure out who was who.

If you want to tackle this book, my advice would be to take your time to truly understand this complex family. This book is exceptionally well researched and a true chronological treat for those who love to dive into the intricacies of medieval families. If this sounds like you, check out, “The Rise and Fall of a Medieval Family: The Despensers” by Kathryn Warner.

Book Review: “Betrayal” by Judith Arnopp, Cryssa Bazos, Anna Belfrage, Derek Birks, Helen Hollick, Amy Maroney, Alison Morton, Charlene Newcomb, Tony Riches, Mercedes Rochelle, Elizabeth St. John, and Annie Whitehead

In life, one of the hardest decisions that we must decide is who to trust. Who can we truly depend on to be by our side when times get rough or when they are going our way. Most of the time, we can rely on those who we put our trust in, but there are extraordinary times when our trust in someone is utterly shattered. Betrayal of one’s trust is like a knife in the back, it can be devastating no matter who is being betrayed. It is not a new concept in human nature to betray others. Whether for money, for power, or lust, betrayal can destroy the lives of everyone involved. Can there be redemption after betrayal? In this anthology of historical fiction tales, twelve authors explore every aspect of betrayal throughout history. This is “Betrayal” by the Historical Fictioneers.

I would like to thank the Historical Fictioneers for sending me a copy of this anthology to read and review. The Historical Fictioneers is a group of twelve historical fiction authors whose works span from early Roman ruled Brittania to the modern-day. The members of this illustrious group are Judith Arnopp, Cryssa Bazos, Anna Belfrage, Derek Birks, Helen Hollick, Amy Maroney, Alison Morton, Charlene Newcomb, Tony Riches, Mercedes Rochelle, Elizabeth St. John, and Annie Whitehead. When I heard about this project, I knew that I wanted to read this book, since this would be my first historical fiction anthology. I had read some of the authors who have written about the Tudors and the Wars of the Roses, but many of the authors in this group I had not had the pleasure of reading their works yet, so I was very excited to go on brand new historical adventures.

This anthology was a time-traveling delight, exploring numerous centuries from every possible angle. From early British history under Roman rule to 21st-century Italian history and everything in between, these twelve authors bring their respective periods and characters to life. What is particularly lovely is that these tales cover different positions in life. From knights and peasants to kings and noblewomen, and a few pirates for good measure. Each of these entries is a short sample of novels that each author has written. They are right in the middle of intense moments, which are tantalizing to read. For the authors that I have read before, it was like visiting old friends and for the authors that I had never read before, it was discovering new favorite stories that I might want to read soon.

I did not know what to expect with this book, since it was an anthology and a few of the stories were out of my comfort zone when it came to their eras. I found myself falling in love with these new characters and the new perspectives that these authors took. Each author showed betrayal and why someone betrayed someone else in a different light. From lust for power to greed, broken alliances, and romance, to downright treacherous acts.

Every snippet of a story was a smash hit, but collectively as a whole, this anthology was a triumph. To take twelve different tales that don’t have much in common and to join them in a common theme, such as betrayal, is extraordinary. I want more anthologies like this one by the Historical Fictioneers. This was a historical delight that will appeal to all history nerds. If you want a fabulous escape into different eras of the past, I highly recommend you read, “Betrayal” by Judith Arnopp, Cryssa Bazos, Anna Belfrage, Derek Birks, Helen Hollick, Amy Maroney, Alison Morton, Charlene Newcomb, Tony Riches, Mercedes Rochelle, Elizabeth St. John, and Annie Whitehead
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Book Review: “The King’s Mother: Book Three of The Beaufort Chronicle” by Judith Arnopp

41wbe9UI8AL._SX309_BO1,204,203,200_A series of wars that engulfed England for over thirty years finally comes to its conclusion. The Plantagenet dynasty is no more and the once outlaw is now the first king of the brand new dynasty, the Tudors. Margaret Beaufort is reunited with her beloved son, Henry Tudor as he is crowned King Henry VII. As Henry faces the numerous challenges of being a father and a king, his mother is right by his side to guide and protect him and his family. In the epic conclusion to her Beaufort Chronicle series, Judith Arnopp explores the transition for Margaret Beaufort in the early years of the Tudor dynasty in, “The King’s Mother”.

Since I have read the previous books in this series, it was only natural that I read “The King’s Mother”. I have thoroughly enjoyed Judith Arnopp’s writing in the past and I wanted to know how she would conclude this ingenious series.

We reunite with Margaret Beaufort and her son Henry as they prepare for the event that she has been dreaming of, his coronation. To unite both the houses of York and Lancaster to ensure peace would prevail, Henry Tudor married Elizabeth of York. Their young family grows with their sons and daughters: Arthur, Margaret, Henry, and Mary. There were other children, but they died very young. Margaret Beaufort watches her grandchildren grow and acts as an advisor to Henry as the Mother of the King.

For the most part, peace and harmony reign throughout the land. However, trouble was never too far off from the comforts of the Tudor court. Pretenders lurch around every corner and rebellions are on the edge of boiling over. Henry tries to navigate the intricate European marriage market to make the best possible matches for his children.

To see these events full of hope and sorrow from the eyes of Margaret Beaufort was a delight. This was all she ever wanted, to see her son happy and alive, but for her to realize that even after the war there would be danger around every corner. Margaret was not a monster mother-in-law to Elizabeth like she is portrayed in other historical fiction novels, yet she is not a saint. Arnopp’s Margaret Beaufort is simply a human mother and grandmother who is just trying to do her best for her family.

I have thoroughly enjoyed Arnopp’s Beaufort Chronicle and this is the perfect conclusion. I have always been a fan of Margaret Beaufort and her life story. This series made me love her story even more. It made Margaret feel like a regular human being instead of the monster that other novels portray her to have been. If you want an insider’s look into the early years of the Tudor dynasty through the eyes of its matriarch, I highly recommend you read The Beaufort Chronicle by Judith Arnopp, especially the third book, “The King’s Mother”.

Book Review: “A Princely Lodging: A History of Sheriff Hutton Castle” by Alexander Hill

Numerous castles with remarkable stories dot the landscapes of many European countries, especially England. Few are in good condition whereas others are in a rather ruinous stage. In the village of Sheriff Hutton, there is a shell of a once illustrious castle that protected England and its monarchs for centuries, aptly named Sheriff Hutton Castle. For those who are familiar with the family York and the Nevilles of the Wars of the Roses, you might be familiar with the name of this castle, but do you know the entire story of the castle? Why was this castle so significant to the history of northern England and why did it fall into disarray? These questions and more are explored in Alexander Hill’s debut book, “A Princely Lodging: A History of Sheriff Hutton Castle”.

I would like to thank Alexander Hill for sending me a copy of his book. I always like learning about new aspects of history that I never considered. Obviously, I have heard of Sheriff Hutton Castle, but I never considered its history, so I was excited to learn more about this castle.

In order to understand the significance of Sheriff Hutton Castle and why it was built in Sheriff Hutton, Hill takes his readers to the reign of William the Conqueror. William’s castle-building campaign was significant since the castles acted as defensive structures to protect the country. Later, they would transition to more palatial buildings, but they were still used by the military from time to time as headquarters for councils.

Knowing this information, Hill dives deep into the archives to explore the truth about Sheriff Hutton Castle. Hill tells the tale of Sheriff Hutton Castle in chronological order; from who built it, who owned it when, and why it is left in its current dilapidated state. The amount of care and meticulous research that went into writing this book is nothing short of astounding. Hill includes details about the landscape, the structure itself, how much it took to repair such a structure, and who acted as guests and caretakers of the castle.

What I found extremely fascinating is how much time Hill took on the Wars of the Roses and the Tudors period in the castle’s history. To see how the York dynasty used it as a strategic point for their Council of the North and how it was used as a nursery for some of the most famous royal children was interesting. One of my favorite parts of this book was the portion about Henry Fitzroy, the illegitimate son of Henry VIII, and his time at Sheriff Hutton Castle. To see how he was raised and the education that he received was a breath of fresh air, especially for those who are fans of studying the Tudor dynasty.

Overall, I found this book rather enjoyable. There were a few grammatical mistakes, but the actual content of this book was engrossing and very original. This may be Alexander Hill’s debut, but I hope it is not his last book. I would love for him to explore even more castles in the near future. If you want to learn more about Sheriff Hutton Castle and its impact, I recommend you read, “A Princely Lodging: A History of Sheriff Hutton Castle” by Alexander Hill.

Book Review: “Richard III in the North” by M.J. Trow

If you have studied the Wars of the Roses, you are obviously very familiar with the infamous last Plantagenet King of England, Richard III. He is known for many things, but the most notorious thing that he is associated with is the murder of the Princes in the Tower, his nephews. However, we cannot be certain that he committed this crime or if a crime was committed in the first place. These rumors swirled around London and Southern England where Richard III was not popular. It was a different story in Northern England, where he was much beloved. In M.J. Trow’s latest book, “Richard III in the North”, he tries to uncover the true story of Richard III by looking at his life while he was living in the North. Was he really the monster that literature has portrayed him as or do we have a case of misunderstanding a historical figure?

I would like to thank Pen and Sword Books and Net Galley for sending me a copy of this book. I am by no means a Ricardian, but I do enjoy nonfiction books about a historical figure that gives a new twist to their story, which this book does rather well.

To understand why Richard was positioned in the North and why it was crucial, Trow takes readers on a journey through the past. Trow first explores the origins of Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville, Richard III’s father, and mother, which was very interesting to read. As someone familiar with these characters, it was easy for me to follow the genealogy, but I know that there would be some readers who would have found family trees helpful in this particular section. At the start of each chapter, Trow has decided to include the coat of arms of a different historical figure that made an impact in Richard’s life, which I thought was an elegant touch.

Obviously, since Richard III lived in the time that we refer to as the Wars of the Roses, Trow spends quite a bit of time discussing major battles and causes of the conflict. What I really appreciated is when Trow went into details about major battles that are often overlooked, like Wakefield. These battles and these causes led to the decision by Richard’s brother King Edward IV to send Richard to the north to quell the violence that might have been caused by allies of the Lancastrians.

It is the North that Trow gives us as readers a different view of the much-maligned man. It was here that Richard was beloved and that he spent much of his adult life. He creates a different world that is hostile to Southerns, yet Richard is able to make a cordial relationship that would turn into him being adored by the people. Trow includes vivid descriptions of castles that were associated with and what life was like for him and his immediate family. It was a unique side of the infamous figure that made him more life-like instead of how he is portrayed in literature.

This may seem like yet another book about Richard III, but I think Trow’s focus on the relationship between the last Plantagenet king and the North makes this stand out from all of the rest. Trow has a very casual writing style but you can tell he has obviously done his research. I think if you are a Ricardian or if you want to look at a new aspect of the Wars of the Roses, I would recommend you read, “Richard III in the North” by M.J. Trow.

Guest Post: Women and the Birth of Magna Carta By Sharon Bennett Connolly

118040039_3243809485697736_4753222466893410523_nToday, I am pleased to welcome Sharon Bennett Connolly, the author of Ladies of Magna Carta: Women of Influence in Thirteenth Century England. She will be discussing the Magna Carta and the women who influenced this extraordinary document.

Magna Carta is probably the most significant charter in English history and,
today, its importance extends beyond England’s shores, holding a special place in the constitutions of many countries around the world. Despite its age, Magna Carta’s iconic status is a more modern phenomenon, seen in the
influence it has had on nations and organizations around the globe, such as the United States of America and the United Nations, who have used it as the basis for their own 1791 Bill of Rights and the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, respectively.

After more than 800 years, there are only four original copies of the 1215 charter remains in existence. The best preserved of these four is thought to have arrived at Salisbury Cathedral within days of it being issued on 15 June 1215 and is housed in an interactive exhibition in the cathedral’s Chapter House. A second is owned by Lincoln Cathedral and is now housed in a new, purpose-built, state-of-the-art underground vault in the heart of Lincoln Castle. The remaining two are owned by the British Library in London, one of which was badly damaged by fire in 1731 and has deteriorated over the years; however, the other is on display in the Treasures exhibition, a magnet to visitors from all over the world, who wish to see the iconic Magna Carta.

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Originally called the Charter of Liberties, it was renamed Magna Carta or Great Charter, in 1217, when the Charter of the Forest was issued. Sealed (not signed) in the meadow at Runnymede in June 1215, the legacy of Magna Carta, down through the centuries, has enjoyed a much greater impact on history and the people of the world than it did at the time of its creation. As a peace treaty between rebellious barons and the infamous King John, it was an utter failure, thrown out almost before the wax seals had hardened, not worth the parchment it was written on. The subsequent armed rebellion saw a French prince invited to claim the English throne – if he could wrest it from John’s hands – and John spent the last year of his life clinging desperately to his crown and lands.

Royal 14 C.VII, f.9

Just fifteen months after Magna Carta was sealed, King John was on his deathbed; he died in his forty-ninth year, at Newark Castle on the
night of 18/19 October 1216. His 9-year old son, Henry III, inherited a country mired in a civil war, with half of it occupied by a French army. The young king and his regent, William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, had a fight on their hands; they wasted no time in reissuing the Magna Carta and setting about regaining control of the country.

Essentially a peace treaty, Magna Carta is the closest thing England has to a
constitution. It addressed the worries and grievances of the English nobility,
the barons, and sought to curb the powers of the king, firmly placing the
monarch below the law, rather than above it. But what of the women? A small number of Magna Carta clauses were influenced by the experiences of women or sought to protect the rights of women.

Of the sixty-three clauses, two stand out as the guarantors of liberty and the
law, not only in England but around the world. Clause 39 ensures that ‘no man shall be taken or imprisoned or deprived or outlawed or exiled or in any way ruined, nor will we go or send against him, except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land.’ This guarantee of justice for all is believed to have been inspired by John’s treatment of Matilda de Braose, wife of William de Braose, Lord of Bamber. William was one of John’s foremost supporters in the early years of his reign, but later fell afoul of the king and saw his family hunted and hounded, almost to destruction. This clause is supported by the one following, clause 49, which states categorically; ‘To no one will we sell, to no one will we deny or delay right or justice.’

As a consequence of John’s rancor poor Matilda and her son, also called
William found themselves languishing in one of John’s prisons. King John
made an agreement with both William and Matilda; freedom for her and a
pardon for William in return for 40,000 marks. However, being either unwilling or unable to pay, Matilda and her son remained in prison – either at Windsor or Corfe Castle – and William was outlawed, eventually escaping into exile in France, disguised as a beggar, where he died in 1211.

Matilda’s fate was more gruesome; she and her son were left to starve to
death in John’s dungeons (though whether this was at Corfe or Windsor is
unclear). Tradition has it, that when their bodies were found, William’s cheeks bore his mother’s bite marks, where she had tried to stay alive following his death:

‘On the eleventh day the mother was found dead between her son’s legs, still
upright but leaning back against her son’s chest as a dead woman. The son,
who was also dead, sat upright, leaning against the wall as a dead man. So
desperate was the mother that she had eaten her son’s cheeks. When William
de Braose, who was in Paris, heard this news, he died soon afterwards, many
asserting that it was through grief.’ (Anonymous of Bethune)

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The Magna Carta of 1215 reflects the needs and events of the time in which it was issued; an England on the brink of civil war, disaffected barons demanding redress, the church and cities, such as London, looking for protection. It was drawn up by barons looking for reparations and legal protection from a king whose word could no longer be trusted, who meted out arbitrary punishments and heavy taxes. It was not a charter that was intended for the protection and legal rights of every man, woman and child in the land; though it has come to be seen as just that in subsequent centuries. Indeed, the common man does not get a mention, and of the sixty-three clauses, only eight of them mention women as a gender.

Only one clause uses the word femina – woman – and that is a clause which
restricts the rights and powers of a woman, rather than upholding them.
Clause 54 states: ‘No one shall be taken or imprisoned upon the appeal of a
woman for the death of anyone except her husband.’ At first glance, this has to be the most anti-feminist statement ever made, a woman was not allowed to give evidence of a murder unless it was her own husband who was killed. However, the barons believed they had justification for inserting this clause. In a time when a man had the right to face his accuser in trial by combat to prove his innocence, this right would be automatically removed if his accuser was a woman; women were not allowed to use force of arms. A female accuser was seen as being able to circumvent the law, and therefore the law was open to abuse. It was not just that a woman may bear false witness and the accused would have no right of redress in battle; it was also that a woman may be manipulated by her menfolk to make an accusation, knowing that she would not be required to back it up by feat of arms. Whereas her husband, father or brother may have been challenged to do just that.

However, while it is possible to see why this clause was written, it does not
deny the fact that women were treated so differently and denied the
fundamental right to justice simply because of their gender. This very clause was used on 5 July 1215, when King John ordered the release of Everard de Mildeston, an alleged murderer. Everard had been accused of the murder of her son, Richard, by Seina Chevel. Such a charge was now forbidden under the terms of Magna Carta, and the accused was therefore released. It is, of course, true that many of the clauses of Magna Carta refer to people in general, rather than just men, and that women are included in such clauses, as well as in the eight which refer to them specifically. However, the significance of women in the Magna Carta story is not just their limited inclusion in the charter itself, but also in their experiences of the unsettled times in which they lived, in their influence on the charter and in their use of its clauses to exact recompense for injustices they have experienced.

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The political crisis which saw the issuing of Magna Carta, and the civil war which followed, was not just significant to the barons involved, but to their wives and families, tenants and retainers. The conflict tore families apart as they took sides in the struggle and saw more than one baron change sides mid-crisis. Wives and daughters were caught in the middle, often torn by divided loyalties; between their birth family and the family into which they had married; between their fathers and their husbands. For instance, Matilda Marshal was the eldest daughter of William Marshal, a man known for his staunch loyalty to the crown, but she was married to Hugh Bigod, son of Roger, second Earl of Norfolk, one of the leaders of baronial opposition; Roger and Hugh were both named among the twenty- five barons appointed to ensure that John adhered to the terms of Magna
Carta, known as the Enforcers of Magna Carta.

Some of the clauses are specific to the people on the political stage in 1215.
Clause 59 of Magna Carta, for instance, refers to two particular women,
though they are identified by their relationship to the king of Scots, rather than their names. These were two of the sisters of Alexander II, who had been held hostage by King John since the 1209 Treaty of Norham. John had promised to find husbands for the two princesses, preferably within the royal family. However, the marriages had never materialized and, six years on, the young women, Margaret and Isabella, were now in their twenties, and still unmarried. The Magna Carta clause opens with; ‘We will treat with Alexander, king of Scots, concerning the return of his sisters and hostages…’
As with many of the issues addressed in Magna Carta, the problem of the
Scottish princesses was not resolved immediately. Margaret was eventually
married, in 1221, to King Henry III’s justiciar, Hubert de Burgh; a lowly marriage for the daughter of a king. Isabella, however, remained unmarried and in 1222 returned to Scotland. She was eventually wed to Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk, in 1225. Roger was the son of Matilda Marshal and therefore grandson of William Marshal, Henry III’s regent. At only 13 years of age, young Roger was still a minor and with an age disparity of around 17 years, the marriage was not a happy one. The couple never had children and Roger tried to have the marriage annulled at one stage but was refused by the church.

These are just a handful of examples of how the lives of women are woven into the Magna Carta story. The deeper you dig, the more fascinating stories you will find. Magna Carta started England on the road to democratic government and, more importantly, universal suffrage, culminating in votes for women in 1918. Magna Carta was the first step. Within a generation of the charter’s first issue, women such as King John’s own daughter, Eleanor de Montfort, were helping to fight for political reform and others, such as Isabel d’Aubigny, were using its clauses to their advantage. Women had been a part of the fight for and against King John in the lead up to the first issuing of Magna Carta. They had influenced its creation and continued to use its clauses to fight for their rights and those of their families. There was still a long way to go, especially for women. Magna Carta was not the start of the women’s rights movement, but
it serves as a benchmark for how far society has come in the last eight
centuries.

Photo information:

Ladies of Magna Carta; the Magna Carta (British Library); Magna Carta memorial, Runnymede (Jayne Smith); King John (British Library); Windsor Castle, possible location for the sad death of Matilda de Braose and her son William (my photo).

Author bio:

Sharon Bennett Connolly
Sharon Bennett Connolly has been fascinated by history her whole life. She
has studied history academically and just for fun – and even worked as a tour guide at historical sites. For Christmas 2014, her husband gave her a blog as a gift – http://www.historytheinterestingbits.com – and Sharon started researching and writing about the stories that have always fascinated, concentrating on medieval women. Her latest book, Ladies of Magna Carta: Women of Influence in Thirteenth Century England, released in May 2020, is her third non-fiction book. She is also the author of Heroines of the Medieval World and Silk and the Sword: The Women of the Norman Conquest. Sharon regularly gives talks on women’s history; she is a feature writer for All About History magazine and her TV work includes Australian Television; Who Do You Think You Are.

Links:
Blog: https://historytheinterestingbits.com/
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Thehistorybits/
Twitter: @Thehistorybits
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/sharonbennettconnolly/?hl=en
Amazon: http://viewauthor.at/SharonBennettConnolly

Pen & Sword: https://www.pen-and-sword.co.uk/Ladies-of-Magna-Carta-
Hardback/p/17766

Book Review: “Joan, Lady of Wales: Power and Politics of King John’s Daughter” by Danna R. Messer

51351935Medieval women held many different titles that defined their roles and their connections. Mothers, daughters, and wives tended to be the most popular and the most common. Titles such as queen, political diplomat, and peace weaver tend to be rare and given to women of power. Yet, these words accurately depict a unique woman who lived during the Angevin/ Plantagenet dynasty. She was the illegitimate daughter of the notorious King John and the wife of Llywelyn the Great, a Prince of Wales. She worked tirelessly to establish peace between England and Wales, yet she has not received much attention in the past. Her name was Joan, Lady of Wales, and her story is brought to life in Danna R. Messer’s book, “Joan, Lady of Wales: Power and Politics of King John’s Daughter”.

I would like to thank Pen and Sword Books and Net Galley for sending me a copy of this book. I did not know much about Joan, except what I read about her in Sharon Bennett Connolly’s latest book, “Ladies of Magna Carta: Women of Influence in Thirteenth-Century England”. She sounded really interesting so when I heard about this book by Messer, I wanted to read it to learn more about Joan.

As someone who did not know a lot about Joan or medieval Wales, I found this book informative and enjoyable. Messer takes the time to explain what life was like for a royal Welsh couple, like Joan and Llywelyn, and why their marriage made such an impact in the long run. On paper, it was a princess from England marrying a prince from Wales, but what made this union so unique was the fact that Joan was the illegitimate daughter of King John and yet she was treated like a beloved legitimate child. Of course, this marriage was first and foremost, a political match, but it seemed to have developed into a strong and loving partnership, that endured 30 years of trials and tribulations.

One of the major trials that Joan had to deal with was to prevent England and Wales from going to war against each other. Truly a monumental challenge for, as Messer meticulously points out, Llywelyn and either King John or King Henry III were constantly having disagreements. I could just picture Joan getting exasperated that she had to try to calm things down between England and Wales every single time. Her diplomatic skills were truly remarkable, especially with how much influence she possessed in both countries.

Probably the most controversial event in Joan’s life is her affair with William de Braose, which led to his execution and her imprisonment. Messer does a good job explaining what we know about this situation. Unfortunately, like many events in Joan’s life, Messer has to use a bit of guesswork to try and put together the clues about Joan and figure out what happened. It can be a bit frustrating, but we have to remember that Joan lived over 800 years ago and women were not recorded as detailed as they are now or even 500 years ago. I think we can give Messer a pass on guessing where Joan was and what her role was in certain events.

Overall, I found this book enlightening. I think Messer’s writing style is engaging and she was dedicated to finding out the truth, as far as the facts would take her. I think this is a fantastic book for someone who needs an introduction to medieval Welsh royal lifestyle, the power of royal Welsh women, and of course, a meticulously detailed account of the life of Joan, Lady of Wales. If this describes you, check out “Joan, Lady of Wales: Power and Politics of King John’s Daughter” by Danna R. Messer.

Book Review: “Lost Heirs of the Medieval Crown: The Kings and Queens Who Never Were” by J.F. Andrews

52645565._SX318_SY475_In history, we tend to focus on those who were crowned kings and queens of different nations. Their strengths and their weaknesses. Their accessions and the legacies that they left behind. With every story of someone who triumphed in gaining the throne, there are tales of those who were close to the throne but were never able to achieve the ultimate goal of ruling a nation. These “lost heirs” fall into two categories; either their names live on in infamy or they are thrown into the dust of the past. Who were these men and women and why did they lose their chances to sit on the throne? These questions are explored in J.F. Andrews’ book, “Lost Heirs of the Medieval Crown: The Kings and Queens Who Never Were”.

I would like to thank Pen and Sword Books for sending me a copy of this book. The title was what drew me into reading it, since these figures rarely get attention, let alone have an entire book dedicated to their lives. I have never read a book by J.F. Andrews, which is not surprising since it is a pseudonym for a historian who has a Ph.D. in Medieval Studies. I want to know who the historian really is since, in the historical field, it is a rarity to use a pseudonym, but that may just be my own personal curiosity.

Andrews’ book begins with the death of William the Conqueror and extends through the reign of Henry VII. With over 500 years of Medieval English history (with the main focus being on the Plantagenet family), it can get a bit confusing to figure out how everyone is connected, but Andrews provides a simplified family tree at the beginning of each chapter to help the reader out. It is a brilliant move and it also shows how vast Andrews’ knowledge of Medieval England’s royal families truly is.

When we tend to think about those would inherit the throne, we tend to think about the firstborn sons, like Robert Curthose, Henry the Young King, Edward the Black Prince, and Edward V. However, as the reader will learn, they were not the only ones who had a chance at the throne. Men, like Richard duke of York, believed that their claim to the throne was stronger than the person who was king. There were also those who were seen as a threat to the king who sat on the throne because of their lineage. They were all legitimate, as Andrews chose not to include those who were illegitimate.

Another factor that united all of these stories was that they all ended in tragedy. Some died from medical conditions at a young age. Others were either imprisoned, never to be heard from again. Yet the majority died in battle, either fighting for or against the king who sat on the throne at the time. Most of them, except for Richard duke of York, died relatively young, which makes us as readers wonder what their reigns might have been like if they were able to be crowned king or queen respectfully.

Overall, I found this book rather informative. Andrews’ writing is enjoyable and is easy to follow. This book really makes you wonder what if these lost heirs became kings and queens, how different history would have been. If you want to read an intriguing book about some mysterious men and women in history, I highly recommend you read, “Lost Heirs of the Medieval Crown: The Kings and Queens Who Never Were” by J.F. Andrews.